Release Notes


All major changes are listed here.

0.7.0 (2023-11-13)

New Features

Additional interpolation functionality

The interpolation functionality of windkit was expanded with the release, several low-level interpolation routines were added, allowing interpolation to and from all of windkit’s spatial data structures.

  • Added windkit.spatial.interp_structured_like for interpolation from a “cuboid” to any spatial structure, using any of the interpolation methods available in xarray.Dataset.interp.

  • Added windkit.spatial.interp_unstructured_like and windkit.spatial.interp_unstructured and for interpolation between any spatial structures, using nearest, linear, or cubic methods. Additionally, the natural method can be used peform natural neighbor interpolation for 2D point structured target structures, using metpy's implementation <>.

Additionally a few high level routines were added for interpolation specific fields.

  • Added windkit.interpolate_gwc to interpolate a generalized wind climate dataset.

  • Added windkit.vinterp_wind_speed for vertical interpolation of wind speeds

  • Added windkit.vinterp_wind_direction for vertical interpolation of wind directions

Improvements to the map_conversion routines
  • Added windkit.map_conversion.find_duplicate_lines to identify duplicated lines in a GeoDataFrame, even if the line is reversed.

  • windkit.poly2lines now correctly sets the CRS to match the input data. Before it was None.

  • windkit.poly2lines and windkit.lines2poly now have an absolute tolerance argument, atol, which can be used to identify nearby points, which should be joined.

Access to data from Microsoft’s Planetary Computer platform
  • Elevation and landcover data obtained using windkit.get_map can now use either Microsoft’s Planetary Computer platform or Google’s Earth Engine.

  • Added windkit.get_era5 to download ERA5 data from Microsoft’s Planetary Computer platform.

Calculate additional derived quantities from Weibull and Binned Wind climates
  • Added new functions windkit.fit_weibull_wasp_m1_m3_fgtm, windkit.fit_weibull_wasp_m1_m3, and windkit.fit_weibull_k_sumlogm for fitting weibull distributions to wind speed moments.

  • Added windkit.weibull_cdf and windkit.weibull_pdf calculate the cdf and pdf of a weibull distribution.

  • Added windkit.weibull_freq_gt_mean to calculate the fraction of probability mass above the mean of a weibull distribution.

  • Added windkit.bwc_ws_cdf and windkit.bwc_freq_gt_mean are similar functions for binned wind climates.

Convenience functions to access standard land cover tables for common datasets
  • Added windkit.LandCoverTable.get_table and it’s top-level alias windkit.get_land_cover_table to get a land cover table for a given land cover dataset. Landcover tables are currently provided for CGLS-LC100, CORINE, GlobCover, MODIS, WorldCover, and ESA_CCI.

Even more spatial functionality
  • Added windkit.spatial.clip_with_margin to clip a raster-like dataset to the bounds of another dataset plus a margin. This is useful for clipping a dataset before doing other operations with it (e.g. interpolation) to reduce computation time.

  • Added windkit.spatial.equal_spatial_shape, to check if two xarray objects have the same struct and spatial shape. This differs from windkit.spatial.are_spatially_equal, which requires the values to also be the same.

  • Added windkit.spatial.covers to check if a cuboid dataset covers another spatial dataset (point, stacked_point, or cuboid, or polygon).

Further improvements to wrg and rsf file handling
  • windkit.read_wrgfile, windkit.read_rsffile have a new boolean argument use_production, where if it is True, the power colum in the file is interpreted as gross AEP, and when False, the power column in the file is interpreted as power density.

  • windkit.read_wrgfile, windkit.read_rsffile have a new boolean argument use_production where if it is True, the gross_aep data variable is written to the file, and if False, the power_density column is written to the file.

Bug fixes

  • windkit.LandCoverTable.from_dict_ora: Sets the correct values of z0frac and dfrac in the LandCoverTable description.

  • windkit.BBox.buffer now works with shapely 2.0.

  • Changed the default nodata value for windkit.spatial.warp from np.nan to None, which results in a value of -9999 for integer fields, and np.nan for float fields. This fixes an issue with integer data, for which np.nan is undefined.

  • windkit.read_rsffile no longer returns a unneeded point coordinate, when to_cuboid=False.

  • empty.empty_gwc uses the same random number generator for all data variables, ensuring the same seed gives the same numbers.


  • windkit.generalized_wind_climate.read_gwc performs validations checks for all formats, not only netCDF

  • windkit.generalized_wind_climate.to_libfile detects if path is a file or a directory and creates subdirectories if they do not exist.

  • windkit.generalized_wind_climate.to_libfile formats .lib filename using the coordinates if no name is given, similar to what is done with multiple files.

  • function gwc_validate and decoratorgwc_validate_wrapper perform extra validations on generalized wind climate datasets. The first generalized height must be 10.0, the first generalized roughness must be 0.0, and both must have at least 2 entries.

  • windkit.read_cfdres, now always returns a dataset with the coordinates south_north and west_east sorted from low to high.

  • windkit.read_vector_map will raise RuntimeError when trying to read a .map file with displacement height, which is not supported.

  • wk.read_rsffile now allows .rsf files with a single-point to be converted to cuboid.

  • Added windkit.rotor_equivalent_wind_speed function for calculating REWS

  • Added windkit.read_wwc that creates and validates a weibull wind climate xarray.Dataset from a file.

  • Added datum_name argument to windkit.spatial.BBox.utm_bbox_from_geographic_coordinate to allow the user to specify the datum name for the UTM projection.

  • empty.empty_wasp_site_factors and empty.empty_met_fields are filled with random numbers.

  • empty.empty_pwc can include any desired combination of met field and site factors. Defaults to A_combined, k_combined, power_density for met fields and site_elev for site factors.

  • empty.empty_gwc has a new boolean argument wdfreq_constant, which allows you to create a generalized wind climate object where wdfreq is constant along the gen_height. This is used to create datasets that can be written to the .lib file format.

  • empty.empty_gwc retains the shape of scalar structured datasets, i.e. a single point with no point dimension, only coordinate values. This structure is common when selecting a single location using .sel or .isel.

  • Added windkit.empty.empty_tswc that generates a time series wind climate xarray.Dataset with random but meaningful values.

  • Added split_combomap CLI utility, which reads a combo .map file and returns two .gpkg files, one for elevation and one for landcover.


  • windkit.spatial.interpolate_to_grid deprecated in favor of windkit.spatial.interp_structured_like and windkit.spatial.interp_unstructured_like

Breaking changes

  • windkit.poly2lines no longer has a closed_map argument. Instead, when background_lc_id is set, all empty space is filled with the provided id. This allows for maps that are no longer rectangular, e.g. due to reprojection, to be properly converted to line maps.

  • Removed accessors, which were previously registered for several wind climate data structures. You will need to use the functions instead.

0.6.3 (2023-07-18)

New Features

Enhanced bounding box object

Several new methods were added to the BBox object to make it easier to work with.

  • Create BBox objects in more ways:

    • BBox.from_bounds as alias to BBox.from_cornerpts and set default crs to EPSG:4326

    • BBox.from_point_and_buffer to create a bbox from a x,y-point, a buffer size, and a crs

    • BBox.utm_bbox_from_geographic_coordinate to create a bbox from a geographic coordinate (point) and a buffer in meters, projecting to the appropriate UTM coordinates.

  • Simplified reproject to geographic and UTM coordinates

    • Added method BBox.reproject_to_geographic() to reproject a bbox to geographic coordinates

    • Added method BBox.reproject_to_utm() to reproject a bbox to UTM coordinates

  • Return data in common GIS formats using:

    • Added method BBox.polygon property to return a shapely polygon

    • Added method BBox.envelope() to return an enveloped bbox in the current crs

  • Create a simple plot of your BBox using BBox.plot()

Formatting improvements when writing .wrg/.rsf files
  • windkit.to_rsffile and windkit.to_wrgfile now attempts to match the WAsP formatting more closely and a new formatters argument allows the user to specify the formatting for each column. This allows for more control over the formatting of the output file. Additional formatting checks have also been added to ensure that the formatting is correct.

Require regulation_type for wtg data structures
  • The WindTurbineGenerator now requires a regulation_type variable. When reading in a WTG using windkit.read_wtg, the default mode is pitch. You can set it to stall or have it autodetected using the new windkit.wind_turbine.estimate_regulation_type function.

  • Validation functions have been added to the WTG object type, so you can now ensure that your Dataset has the correct format before using the WTG.

Allow use of Polygons for defining landcover data
  • windkit.read_vector_map Now can read polygon based landcover vector map files in gpkg format, which is commonly used in GIS tools. The function has a new parameter background_lc_id that is needed to setup the background for polygon based vector maps.


  • windkit.read_vector_map: For landcover data in gpkg format,id is now the default name used to identify landcover ID’s in the landcover table. For old gpkg files where the name index is used, windkit.read_vector_map will print a FutureWarning.

  • Remove dependency on cf-xarray, as we have our own metadata vocabulary. This fixes an issue where Pooch was an optional dependency of cf-xarray, but required for the functionality used by WindKit.


  • Prevent exception when running in the python interpreter and calling windkit.metadata.update_history. Now a the generic message “Unknown python interpreter command.” is added to the object history in this scenario. To get a correct history, it is recommended to use iPython for interactive sessions.

  • Fixed a bug in BBox.buffer, which would cause negative buffering to not preserve bbox shape

0.6.2 (2023-06-20)

New Features

New file reading functions
  • windkit.read_timeseries_from_pandas and windkit.read_timeseries_from_csv build a time-series wind climate xarray.Dataset from time-series data in tabular form, either a pandas Dataframe or a csv file. The functions attempt to auto-detect the wind speed and wind direction columns based on a standard list of names if they are not provided.

  • windkit.read_cfdres reads a WAsP CFD .cfdres file into an xarray.Dataset structure.

Detection of CRS from WAsP .map files
  • windkit.read_vector_map and by extension windkit.read_elevation_map and windkit.read_roughness_map now try to detect CRS information from the header of WAsP .map files, which can be added using recent versions of the WAsP MapEditor. In case there is a problem (e.g. wrong format) it will raise an error.

Updates to vertical profile plotting
  • windkit.plot.vertical_profile Function now works for data arrays without their attributes set. If the height coordinate does not have attributes, Height [m] will be used for the y-axis. If the data variable to plot does not have attributes, will be used for the x-axis.

  • windkit.plot.vertical_profile no longer allows plotting of objects with a time coordinate. This is due to performance limitations when plotting potentially thousands of points when a time-series object is passed.

Breaking changes

  • When creating a file using windkit.to_rsffile and windkit.to_wrgfile or reading a file using wk.read_rsffile and wk.read_wrgfile, the elevation variable has been renamed from elevation to site_elev. This now matches the variable name used in PyWAsP.

  • class windkit.WindTurbines does not allow wind turbine xarray.Dataset with more than one mode.


  • windkit.spatial.nearest_points will issue a warning instead of a ValueError when it is used on datasets with geographical coordinates.

  • windkit.to_rsffile and windkit.to_wrgfile calculate necessary parameters met_fields, “power_density”, “combined_A”, “combined_k”, and “wspd”, from a wwc if they aren’t included.

Bug Fixes

  • Fixed a formatting bug in wk.to_rsffile and wk.to_wrgfile that resulted in incorrect column widths.

0.6.1 (2023-03-16)

New Features

  • windkit.wtg_cp function returns the power_coefficient for given wind speeds from an wind turbine generator.

  • Added lookup table to convert WAsP Map Editor named projections to EPSG codes. This allows for projection to be autodetected from some GWC files.

Breaking changes

  • Removed coords from windkit.read_gwc. Instead you should use the separate west_east, south_north, and height arguments. Also removed **kwargs, as there was only a single option header, which is now its own argument.


  • Updated pyproj dependency to minimum 3.0

  • Added gen_heights and gen_roughnesses arguments to windkit.empty.empty_gwc to allow users to specify these coordinate values.

  • Removed the mode argument from windkit.wtg_power, windkit.wtg_ct, and windkit.wtg_cp, as they now work with any number of modes in the WTG. If you wish to use a single mode from a wind turbine object, you should select using the isel or sel method.

Bug Fixes

  • Allow projections that don’t have an EPSG code to be added using windkit.spatial.add_crs.

  • Scalar spatial datasets would fail in windkit.spatial.count_spatial_points.

  • Ensured that wk.Workspace.get_gwc could parse GWC objects from WAsP 12.7 and 12.8 workspaces.

  • Fixed bug in windkit.spatial.to_stacked_point, where the order of the west_east and south_north coordinates would be flipped from expected. This caused an issue when converting to point and then back to stacked_point.

  • Prevent creation of NaN values for some curves when using windkit.read_wtg to read .wtg files with different modes and different wind speed tables.

  • Bug fix in wind_climate._is_bwc where an exception was not properly caught.

0.6.0 (2023-01-29)

Several new features in this release including support for Wind Turbines, the ability to convert roughness lines to roughness polygons, and the ability to read PWC files. Several important bug fixes also added.

New Features

Support for wind turbines and AEP data
  • New metadata attributes for annual energy production and wind farm flow map

  • New class windkit.WindTurbines to hold collections of turbine locations and WTGs (power/ct curves and other details).

  • Added metadata for wind turbine generator xarray.Dataset.

  • New plotting function windkit.plot.plot_wind_turbine_locations.

Ability to convert roughness lines to polygons and back
  • New module windkit.map_conversion That allows the user to both create polygons from lines and convert polygons to lines, based on geopandas.GeoDataFrame. It contains the following:

    • LineMap and PolyMap classes: These classes enable conversion and nice plotting of their types.

    • lines2poly and poly2lines helper functions that perform the conversion from lines to polygons and from polygons to line respectively, using the library geopandas.GeoDataFrame.

  • New module windkit.plot.landcover_map to plot the geopandas.GeoDataFrame polygons or lines as a map.

  • New module windkit.plot.color to provide color functions for maps with a focus on roughness coloring.

  • Classwindkit.LandCoverTable has a new method add_colors_to_table to store colors to be used in map plots.

New spatial functionality
  • New function windkit.spatial.interpolate_to_grid to resample data to a target grid.

  • New function windkit.spatial.get_latitude that returns data-array of latitude values in wgs84.

  • New function windkit.spatial.count_spatial_points counts how many points are in a windkit dataset or dataarray.

Enhancements to windkit.get_map.get_ee_map
  • Added NASADEM as elevation dataset

  • Added worldcover as landcover dataset

  • Added option to convert to vector in the cloud.

Ability to read PWC files
  • windkit.read_pwcfile reads WAsP .pwc predicted wind climate file in XML format and returns a weibull wind climate xarray.Dataset

Breaking changes

  • Requires geopandas>=0.11.

  • Requires rioxarray for reading raster GIS files.



  • To support pyproj 3.4.0, changed from to, and dropped deprecated skip_equivalent kwargs.

  • Drop south_north and west_east coords before reassigning them as required in future xarray version.

  • Added height dependent wind direction frequencies to GWC I/O routines

    • For the .lib-file reader frequencies are duplicated across all gen_heights

    • For the .lib-file writer a check is made to ensure all frequencies are these same across heights. If they are not, a gen_height is required to be set by the user.


  • Sped up creation of .lib strings for GWC objects. In testing 15 sites, went from 11s to <1.

  • Retain meta data of wsbin coordinates now also present after combining bwc’s

Bug Fixes

  • Windkit.wwc_mean_windspeed and windkit.wwc_power_density previously calculated emergent wind case using all-sector A&k values. Now it is correctly calculated using sectorwise, and an error is thrown if both emergent and bysector kwargs are True.

  • Fixed reading tif and grd files with negative dx.

  • Catch exception in wind_climate._is_bwc.

  • Prevent modification of input dataset when calling weibull_wind_climate.weibull_combined.

  • Return point or stacked-point dataset for when calling windkit.spatial.create_dataset with duplicated west_east and south_north values. Previously a cuboid was returned with duplicated points collapsed.

  • Use fixed column parsing in read_rsf/read_wrg rather than space splitting, when reading the number of sectors.

  • Ensure temporary file created when using windkit/ is always removed.

  • Create correct BWC when reading data with with irregular bins (i.e. as exported from windpro).


  • Changed name of author’s attributes from name/email to author/author_email

  • Fixed bug for 1d nearest point estimation. The KDtree throws an error if we do not expand the 2d point [x,y] to [[x],[y]]

  • Removed unneeded dependencies


New Features

  • Added functions read_wrgfile and to_wrgfile to read and write .wrf resource grid files

  • Added functions for simple wind-related calculations:

    • windkit.wind_speed_and_direction calculates wind speed and direction from horizontal wind vectors U and V

    • windkit.wind_vectors calculates horizontal wind vectors U and V from wind speed and direction

    • windkit.wind_direction_difference calculates the smallest (signed) circular difference between wind directions in degrees.

    • windkit.wind_speed calculates horizontal wind speed from vectors U and V

    • windkit.wind_direction calculates horizontal wind direction from vectors U and V

    • windkit.wd_to_sector to calculate the bin-index for wind directions for a given number of bins/sectors

  • Support for new Xarray-based Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) object added

  • New wind climate dataset validator function and decorator.

    • The function receives an xarray.Dataset and returns True or False.

    • The decorator wraps a function that receives a wind climate dataset and raises a WindClimateValidationError if the dataset is not valid.

    • It checks dimensions, attributes and data variables.

    • The functions available are:

      • bwc_validate,bwc_validate_wrapper for binned wind climate dataset, imported from windkit.binned_wind_climate

      • wwc_validate,wwc_validate_wrapper for weibull wind climate dataset, imported from windkit.weibull_wind_climate

      • gwc_validate,gwc_validate_wrapper for generalized wind climate dataset, imported from windkit.generalized_wind_climate

      • ts_validate,ts_validate_wrapper for time series wind climate dataset, imported from windkit.time_series_wind_climate

  • New WindClimateValidationError, raised by the newly introduced wind climate dataset validators.

  • New method BBox.to_geoseries() that converts Bounding box to geopandas.Geoseries

  • New empty module that generates xarray.Dataset instances filled with either NaN or meaningful values.

    • Suitable for testing.

    • Current available functions are:

      • empty.empty_wasp_site_factors(): Create empty site-factors dataset

      • empty.empty_bwc(): Create empty binned wind climate dataset filled with meaningful random numbers, i.e. they are generated with a weibull distribution, the sum of wdfreq is 1, etc.

      • empty.empty_wwc(): Create empty weibull wind climate dataset filled with meaningful random numbers, e.g.the values from A are generated from a uniform function between 5 and 10 and the values for k from a uniform function between 1.5 and 2.5.

      • empty.empty_gwc(): Create empty generalized wind climate dataset with the data variables are filled with meaningful random numbers, e.g. the values from A are generated from a uniform function between 5 and 10 and the values for k from a uniform function between 1.5 and 2.5.

      • empty.empty_met_fields(): Create empty dataset filed with met_fields

      • empty.empty_z0meso(): Create empty site_factors with only z0meso and slfmeso

      • empty.empty_pwc(): Create empty predicted wind climate with optional variables

  • New plotting functions in module windkit.plot

    • windkit.plot.vertical_profile() plots the vertical profile of the dataArray or dataArrays introduced.

    • windkit.plot.time_series() creates a time series plot.

    • windkit.plot.single_curve() and windkit.plot.power_ct_curves() add plots for electrical power output curve, thrust curve, RPM, Ct, Cp or any other curve the user wants to pass through.

  • New function windkit.time_series.read_ts_windpro_txt

    • Reads windpro format txt file into a xarray.Dataset


  • Removed windkit.binned_wind_climate.dir_to_sec in favor of windkit.wd_to_sector

  • Modules WaspVectorMap and WaspRasterMap were moved to pywasp and are no longer available.

  • Removed legacy WTG objet WindTurbine


  • windkit/

    • Added function read_wtg to create an xarray.Dataset representation of a turbine

    • Added wtg_power and wtg_ct to return power and ct for given wind speed

    • Added wtg_to_pywake, which makes a PyWake wind turbine class from the dataset

  • renamed vectormap to vector_map

  • renamed rastermap to raster_map

  • renamed elevationmap to elevation_map

  • renamed roughnessmap to roughness_map

  • windkit.read_elevation_map and windkit.read_roughness_map now reads both raster and vector maps.

  • Changed the default behavior of windkit.spatial.clip for rasters/cuboids so small padding is added to the mask, ensuring that raster/cuboid pixels/cells on the edge of the mask are included in the clipping. The previous behavior can be achieved by setting pad=False

  • Updated windkit.spatial.clip for point xr.dataset to always include points that are on the edges of the mask (previously only points inside were included)

  • Updated BWC “header” and GWC “desc” to both be named “wasp_header” (only included for objects originating from WAsP files or methods).

  • Updated to always use “crs” as spatial reference argument name

  • Mirrored spatial.to_raster as spatial.to_cuboid


  • Updated read_rsffile and read_wrgfile to automatically infer the number of sectors in the data.

  • Updated windkit.spatial.clip so it uses a faster clipping method (_clip_to_bbox_raster) when the masking is provided as a BBox object. This speeds up clipping speed significantly.

  • Allowed ws_bins to be python range in windkit.binned_wind_climate._freqs_to_dataset()

  • Functions windkit.spatial.to_point and windkit.spatial.to_raster_point now also work on scalar datasets.

  • Fix bug in metadata.update_var_attrs to store “Object type” as the string “None” to properly write to netCDF

  • Landcover GMLs use custom reader/write to ensure compatibility with WAsP & Map Editor

  • Plotting documentation improved by rendering jupyter notebooks on it using nbsphinx extension for sphinx

  • Plotting testing with jupyter notebooks